Penguins are a group of aquatic flightless seabirds that make up the scientific order Sphenisciformes and the family Spheniscidae. The name “Penguin” comes from the Welsh, “Pen”, which means head, and “Gwyn”, which means white. They live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, and the Galápagos penguin is only one species, found north of the equator.

The tallest penguin is the Emperor penguin at more than 1m in height, whereas the smallest penguin in Galapagos penguin which is height is 49 – 53 cm. Penguins are highly adapted for life in the water and they have counter-shaded dark, white plumage and flippers for swimming.

Species of Penguins:

There are 18 species of penguin, each of which is slightly different. All species live in the Southern Hemisphere. Many live in the South Pole of Antarctica. Some can be found on the coasts of Australia, Africa, New Zealand, South America, and the Galapagos Islands. There can be up to 100 million penguins around the globe.

    • Adelie Penguins – Adélie penguins from Antarctica have white circles around their eyes.
    • Humboldt Penguins – The Humboldt penguins are native to the coastal areas of Chile and Peru.
    • Chinstrap Penguins – Chinstrap penguins have the ability to build their nests during their reproductive period.
    • Magellanic Penguins – Magellanic penguins are natives of Argentina and Chile.
    • Northern Rockhopper Penguins – Northern rockhopper penguins are native to the southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Approximately 85 percent of the Northern Rockhopper Penguins are found in the South Atlantic Ocean and the remaining 15 percent is found in the Indian Ocean on Amsterdam and St. Paul islands.
    • Southern Rockhopper Penguins – Southern rockhopper penguins are native in some parts of South America which have short beaks and red eyes. Southern rockhoppers are smaller than northern rockhoppers. The average lifespan is about 10 years.
    • Emperor Penguins – Emperor penguins are the tallest penguin at more than 1m in height. They have the ability to sink in deep water in Antarctica.
    • Galapagos Penguin – The Galapagos Penguin is the smallest South American penguin that lives north of the equator
    • African Penguins – African penguins or Jackass Penguins originate from warm places such as South Africa and some parts of the coastal areas of Namibia.
    • Royal Penguins – Royal penguins are natives from some parts of Australia have a full face that is white in color.
    • Gentoo Penguins – Gentoo penguins have white stripes around their eyes towards their heads.
    • King Penguins – King penguins have strong and bright colors on their chest, head, and back.
    • Snares Penguins – Seniors penguins live on the New Zealand island of Snares.
    • Little Blue Penguins – The little blue penguins are the smallest type of penguins with a height of 13 inches.
    • Fiordland Penguins – Fiordland penguins are native to Fiordland, New Zealand, and have white spots on their beaks.
    • Erect-Crested Penguins – Erect-crested penguins come from the Antipodes and Bounty Islands.
    • Macaroni Penguins – Macaroni penguins are orange-yellow plumes penguins.
    • Yellow-Eyed Penguins – The yellow-eyed penguins are native to New Zealand have a golden yellow, spotted color around their eyes.


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